Desktop computer

Due to its size and power requirements, a desktop computer is a personal computer intended for frequent usage at a single place on or near a desk. The most typical setup includes a case that houses the power supply, motherboard (a printed circuit board with a microprocessor serving as the central processing unit, memory, bus, some peripherals, and other electronic components), disk storage (typically one or more hard disk drives, solid state drives, optical disc drives, and in early models a floppy disk drive), input devices like a keyboard and mouse, output devices like a computer monitor, speakers, and frequently a printer. The case can be positioned vertically or horizontally underneath, next to, or on top of a desk.

Types

Full-size
Separate display and processing components define full-sized desktop computers. Cables or wireless links are used to link these parts together. They frequently have a tower shape. These computers are simple to update and modify based on user needs, such as via an expansion card.

Early extended-size (much bigger than standard ATX chassis) tower computers were occasionally referred to as “deskside PCs,” however this terminology is now extremely uncommon.

[32]

Compact

Similar to an All-in-one computer, a small desktop can be used.
Principal Articles Small form factor (motherboard and desktop) and Nettop
Compact desktops have smaller physical dimensions than full-sized desktops. For simple tasks like online browsing, using web-based programs, processing documents, and playing back audio and video, they are often small, affordable, low-power computers. [33] They become less suitable for running complicated or resource-intensive programs since the hardware requirements and processing power are typically reduced[34]. One standout instance of a small desktop is a nettop. A laptop without a screen can be used as a small desktop computer, sometimes known as a “slabtop,” in theory. [35]

All-in-one

One example of an AIO desktop PC is the Dell Inspiron One 23 Touch.

All-in-one (AIO) desktop computers have fewer connections and a smaller footprint than desktops with towers because the system’s internal components are integrated into the same case as the display.

[36] Rarely are All-in-one computers referred to as desktop computers.

For personal computers designed for business use, such as the Kaypro II, Osborne 1, TRS-80 Model II, and Compaq Portable, this form factor was popular in the early 1980s. The motherboard of many home computer brands, including Commodore and Atari, was housed in the same enclosure as the keyboard; these devices were typically connected to a television for display. Apple has produced a number of well-known all-in-one computers, including the original Macintosh from the middle of the 1980s and the iMac from the late 1990s and early 2000s. Many all-in-one designs by the middle of the 2000s utilized flat panel screens, while later models included touchscreen displays, enabling them to be used similarly to a portable tablet. [36]

In order to reduce the size of the system enclosure, certain all-in-one desktops, such the iMac G4, have laptop components. [37] Like most laptops, some all-in-one desktop computers are also characterized by the inability to customize or upgrade internal components. This is because the systems’ cases do not provide easy access to upgradeable components, and problems with specific hardware components may necessitate the replacement of the entire computer, regardless of the condition of its other components. [38] There have been several exceptions to this rule, such as HP’s Z1 workstation, which has a flat-angled monitor and can be opened like a car hood to examine the inside machinery. [39]

By usage

gaming laptop
Gaming computer, the main content
Gaming PCs are desktops with powerful CPUs, GPUs, and RAM that are tuned for playing video games at high resolutions and frame rates. Mechanical keyboards for quicker response times[40] and a gaming computer mouse with a greater tracking resolution are typical additions to gaming computers’ peripherals. [41]

Home cinema
PC used for home theater
These desktop computers are primarily used for entertainment purposes and are connected to home entertainment systems. In addition to standard PC functionality, they have high definition displays, video graphics, surround sound, and TV tuner systems.

Internet-connected client or device
Thin client and Internet appliance are the main articles.
Over time, thin clients using off-site computing options like the cloud have gradually taken the role of certain conventional desktop computers.
[42] Local computing requirements are reduced when more services and applications are provided over the internet from remote servers, resulting in smaller, less expensive, and less capable desktop computers. The desktop computer only runs the operating system or a shell application while the actual content is supplied from a server, and in certain circumstances, full virtual desktops are migrated off-site. A virtual machine located at another site may be used by thin client PCs for practically all of their computational needs. Users can have a completely uniform experience from wherever with internal, hosted virtual desktops. [43]

Workstation


Primary Article Workstation
Workstations are a kind of advanced personal computers that are more powerful than a standard PC but not as powerful as a server for everyday computing. They are frequently utilized to carry out scientific and engineering tasks and are capable of high-resolution and three-dimensional interfaces. [44] They frequently link to other workstations, just as server computers. [45] Tower cases are the primary form-factor for this class, however the majority of vendors also make compact or all-in-one low-end workstations. A rack-mount variant of the majority of tower workstations is available.

computer server
Designed for small businesses, these servers are often entry-level models with processing power comparable to workstation/gaming PCs, some standard server functionality, but relatively minimal graphic capabilities. Some desktop servers can also be converted to workstations.

unusual types
quantum mechanics
Shenzhen SpinQ Technology made the first desktop quantum computer available on January 29, 2021. This will be a scaled-down version of their prior quantum computer with two qubits and the same nuclear magnetic resonance technology. Most applications will be instructional for kids in high school and colleges. According to the business, SpinQ will be made available to the general public by the fourth quarter of 2021. [46] [47][48]